Amino Acids
 General Guide to Amino Acids

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In order to absorb and assimilate any amino acid, you must take at least 50 mg of
B6 or P5'P per day.
Magnesium      is also a facilitator. 

ALANINE
. May be used as a source for the production of glucose. 
Therapeutic dosages: 200 to 600 mg per day. 

ARGININE 
. Helpful in treatment of burns, elevated ammonia levels, and cirrhosis of the liver by detoxifying ammonia. 
. Stimulates immune response by enhancing the production of T cells. 
. Induces growth hormone release from the pituitary gland. 
. Should be used with caution in schizophrenia. 
. Intake should be kept low in herpes simplex and Epstein Barr virus interactions. 
. Required for normal sperm count. 
. Essential amino acid for children, not adults. 
. Enhances fat metabolism. 
Therapeutic dosages: Up to 3000 mg per day. 

ASPARTIC ACID  also known as L-aspartate
. Protective function over the liver. 
. Promotes mineral uptake in intestinal tract. 
. Helps in ammonia detoxification. 
. Acts to transport magnesium and potassium to the cells. 

CARNITINE
. Helpful in clearing blood of triglycerides. 
. Helpful in lowering cholesterol, and increasing HDL levels. 
. Essential in transportation of long chain fatty acids into the cells where fats are converted into energy. 
. In heart patients, increases exercise endurance. 
. Increases muscle strength. 
. In uremia or kidney disease, may reduce risk factor for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. 
. Has been shown to help with depression. 
Therapeutic dosages: 1000 to 3000 mg per day. 

CITRULLINE
. Produces the amino acids Arginine and Orthinine. 
. Detoxifies ammonia or other "nitrogen" waste products. 
. Stimulates growth hormone production. 

CYSTEINE 
. Derived from serine and methionine in the liver. 
. A major sulfur containing amino acid. 
. Helps maintain skin flexibility and texture by slowing abnormal cross linking of collagen. 
. Helpful in prevention of free radical formation, an antioxidant. 
. Useful in iron deficiency, anemia and promotion of iron absorption. 
. Promotes red and white blood cell reproduction and tissue restoration in lung diseases. 
. Provides strength of the hair (over 10% of hair is cysteine). 
. Converts to cystine in lack of Vitamin C. 
. Heavy metal chelator. 
. Helps protect against effects of alcohol, pollution. 
. Assists in prevention of cataracts. 
. A derivative called NAC is helpful with asthma,bronchitis and sinus drainage by liquefying and thinning mucus. 
. NAC helps in preventing side effects from chemo and radiation therapies. 
. Use with caution in diabetics, due to changes in insulin cycle. 
Therapeutic dosages: 250 to 500 mg twice per day, divided. 

CYSTINE 
. Helpful with psoriasis and eczema. 
. Enhances tissue recovery after surgery.
. Part of insulin molecule 
. High content in hair. 
. Use with caution in people predisposed to stone formation in the liver or kidneys. 

GABA
. Reduces anxiety/stress by decreasing limbic firing. 
. Helps decrease muscular tension due to stress. 
. Assists with hyperactivity and A.D.D.  Crosses blood brain barrier. 
Therapeutic dosages: 600 to 3000 mg per day, divided. 

GLUTAMIC ACID
. Precursor of GABA. 
. Component of glucose tolerance factor. 
. Helpful with muscular dystrophy. 
. Useful in maintaining the body's nitrogen balance. 

GLUTAMINE
. Helpful in ulcer and intestinal healing. 
. Helps protect body from effects of alcohol. 
. Assists in treatment of alcoholism by decreasing the desire to drink. 
. Crosses blood brain barrier. 
. Aids mental functions such as memory and concentration. 
. Helps reduce intestinal permeability with food allergies. 
. Needed for production of other nonessential amino acids.
. Enhances effectiveness of chemotherapy and radiation treatments for cancer, while reducing toxicity and damage to the body. 
Therapeutic dosages: 500 to 4000 mg per day, divided. 

GLUTATHIONE
. Contains cysteine, glycine, glutamate. 
. Helps reduce free radical formation. 
. Neutralizes atmospheric substances such as petrochemicals and chlorine. 
. Protective effect against radiation therapy. 
. Transport other amino acids into the cell. 
Therapeutic dosages: 1000 to 3000 mg per day, divided. 

GLYCINE
. Simplest amino acid. 
. Has sweet taste and readily dissolves in liquids. 
. Inhibitory neurotransmitter. 
. Helpful with anxiety and hyperactivity. 
. Helps to remove lead from the body. 
. Assists with epilepsy. 
. Low levels reported in ALS. 
Therapeutic dosages: 500 to 3000 mg per day, divided. 

HISTIDINE
. Essential amino acids for infants, not adults. 
. Helps relieve pain due to rheumatoid arthritis. 
. Should always be taken with Vitamin C (Ester C).
. Use with caution in females prone to depression due to P.M.S.
. Mild anti-inflammatory effect.
. Metabolized into the neurotransmitter histamine, which is involved in smooth muscle function in blood vessels.
. Helps maintain the myelin sheath or insulator of certain nerves.
. Necessary for proper functioning of auditory nerves.
. Chelates toxic metals from the body.
. Helpful with nausea during pregnancy.
Therapeutic dosages: 1000 to 6000 mg per day.

ISOLEUCINE
Isoleucine is an amino acid that is best known for its ability to increase endurance and help heal and repair muscle tissue and encourage clotting at the site of injury. Isoleucine is a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA). One of the Branch Chain Amino Acids, and should be taken as a group.
Therapeutic dosages: 250 to 700 mg per day. Best as BCAA (Branch Chain Amino Acid) group supplement.

LEUCINE
. Second of the Branch Chain Amino Acids, and should be taken as a group.
. Great producer of energy under many kinds of stress from trauma to surgery, infection, muscle training and weight lifting.
. Only amino acid that can substitute for glucose while fasting.
. Stimulates insulin release which stimulates protein synthesis and inhibits protein breakdown.
. Helpful with Parkinson's disease in large doses.
. Use with all stress.
Therapeutic dosages: BCAA as a group, use 175 to 1200mg per day.

LYSINE
. Found in muscle, connective and collagen.
. Inhibits growth and replication of herpes and Epstein Barr Viruses.
. Promotes growth, especially bone growth in infants and children, both requiring much larger amounts than adults.
. Required for antibody formation.
. Tends to be low in vegetarians.
Therapeutic dosages: 1000 to 3000 mg per day with Vitamin C, divided.

METHIONINE.
. One of the sulfur amino acids.
. Powerful antioxidant and detoxifies the liver.
. Gives rise to taurine.
. Helps to detoxify heavy metals from the body and excessive levels of histamine.
. Involved in synthesis of choline and adrenaline, lecithin and Vitamin B12.
. Always take with B6 to inhibit synthesis of homocysteine which promotes plaque deposits in arteries.
. Necessary so selenium is available to the body.
Therapeutic dosages: 800 to 3000 mg per day, divided.

ORTHININE
. May reduce fat and increase muscle mass.
. Powerful stimulator of growth hormone production by pituitary gland.
. Assists in detoxification of ammonia in urea cycle. (Also good for passing gases after surgery)
. Stimulates immune system and enhances wound healing.
. May be useful in autoimmune disease such as arthritis.
. Can be converted in body to arginine, glutamine or proline.
. Doses of 1000 mg in some people may cause insomnia.
Therapeutic dosages: 500 to 3000 mg per day, divided.

PHENYLALANINE
. A precursor of the catecholamines, epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine and dopa.
. May be helpful with appetite control by stimulating CCK (chaleocephtokinin enzyme).
. Increases blood pressure in hypotension.
Note: Should not be taken with MAO and tricyclic antide-pressants, and when cancerous melanoma is present.
Therapeutic dosages: 500 to 2000 mg per day, divided.

PROLINE
. Helpful in lowering blood pressure.
. Important in muscle, tendon and collagen repairs.
. Assists in skin flexibility in relation to aging and sun exposure, and essential for skin health.
. A major amino acid in collagen if Vitamin C is present.
Therapeutic dosages: 500 to 1000 mg per day with Vita- minC.

TAURINE
. Manufactured in the body from methionine or cysteine in the liver with B6. Some zinc must be present in body for taurine to  function properly.
. Found in foods of animal origin. 
. One of sulfur amino acids.
. Predominant amino acid found in heart and assists in balancing calcium and potassium in the heart.
. Under stress, more taurine is used in the body.
. Useful in Congestive Heart Failure patients by easing their physical signs and symptoms without side effects.
. Increase left ventricular heart performance without changes in blood pressure.
. Associated with retinal (eye) degeneration.
. Helpful with seizures and epilepsy.
. Detoxifier of secondary bile acids and toxins.
. Protects cell membranes.
. Frequently considered a neuromodulator.
. Zinc enhances taurine's effect.
Therapeutic dosages: 500 to 3000 mg per day, divided.

THREONINE
. Necessary for digestive and intestinal function. 
. An essential amino acid which rises three times normal during pregnancy.
. Prevents accumulation of fat in liver.
. Increases glycine levels in brain and notably reduces ALS symptoms. 
. Essential for mental health.
Therapeutic dosages: 100 to 500 mg per day.

TRYPTOPHAN
. An essential amino acid and neurotransmitter.
. Neurohormone found in organs throughout the body. 
. Precursor of serotonin in brain.
. Precursor niacin,and effective in treating pellagra.  (Pellagra is a niacin deficiency)
. Present in all infant formulas and I.V.fluids.
. Appears to assistin blood clotting mechanisms.
. Helpful with insomnia in doses of 500 to 2000 mg.
. Helpful in depression and schizophrenia.
. Useful in weight control.
. Helps with pain by elevating the pain threshold.
. Acts as mood stabilizer, calming aggression, obsessive behavior.
. Take with B6 with carbohydrates such as fruit juice for maximum uptake to brain.
. Has helped decrease tremors in Parkinson's patients.
. Currently unavailable in U.S. due to F.D.A.
Therapeutic dosages: 500 to 4000 mg per day, divided.

TYROSINE
. Useful in people with Parkinson's disease.
. Precursor to catecholamines, epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine and dopa.
. Precursor of thyroid hormones.
. Assists in normal brain function and supplier of neurotransmitters.
. Can be used in place of many antidepressants.
. Helps stabilize blood pressure.
. Involved in tissue pigmentation.
. Often called the Stress amino acid.
Note: Should not be taken with MAO and tricyclic antide-pressants, and when cancerous melanoma is present.
Therapeutic dosages: 500 to 2000 mg per day, divided.

VALINE
. Third of the Branch Chain Amino Acids, and should be taken as a group, and an essential amino acid needed for
the nitrogen balance in the body.
. Necessary for muscle coordination, mental and neural function.
. Helpful with inflammation.
Therapeutic Dosage: up to 1000 mg daily. Best if taken as
BCAA.
 


Reference for information   "Healing with Amino Acids"
by Billie J Sahley, Ph.D. & Katherine M. Birkner, C.R.N.A., Ph.D. 

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